Aikido terms

Aikido terms

terminy_aikidoAikido — modern martial art

It is based on many traditional martial arts and, above all, Daito Ryu Aiki Jitsu master Sokaku. Aikido took various steps towards the formation of the Daito Ryu — the basic techniques of the 1930s, aikido as we know it today.

It all started with the fact that Morihei Ueshiba as a result of years of searching and persistent practicing various martial arts developed its own system, which eventually called Aikido. His son, Ueshiba Kisёmaru developed and systematized Aikido. Currently head of the Aiki-Union is a grandson of the founder — Moriteru Ueshiba

What is Aikido? Aikido — the way of harmonization of life energy.


To avoid confusion

Will differerent:

Ai — Harmony, Love, Consistency
Aikidoka — A person engaged in Aikido
Bujutsu — Martial arts
Budo — The Warrior’s Way
Jutsu — Skill and art
Do — Way
Kai — Society
Kan — Style club
Ki — Vital energy
Kobudo — Traditional martial arts
Kokyu — Vital breath


There was several styles of Aikido

The most widely used:

Aikikai — direction, officially recognized in 1940, and continued family Ueshiba

Shin Shin Toitsu (Ki-Aikido) — the direction that began to develop a master Koichi Tohei

Yoshinkan — direction, which began to develop a master Gozo Shioda



Who is who?

In Aikido there is a hierarchy:

O-Sensei — Founder of Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (literally «The Great Teacher»)
Doshu — Head of School
Sheehan — Instructor-head (6 th Dan and above)
Sensei — Teacher (4 — 5 Dan)
Senpai — Senior student
Kohai — Junior student
Doha — Equal disciples
Yudancha — Winner degree Dan
Dojo Che — Senior dojo
Uchi deshi — Student who lives in the house of the master (approximate pupil)
Dan — Higher level student and workshops
Kyu — Initial student level

Degrees «kyu» in Aikido only 6 adults and 8 children. The youngest degree «kyu» — the eighth, the oldest — first. Each level has its own name.

Degrees of «dan» in Aikido 10. In contrast to the «kyu», the level of «dan» is growing according to its serial number; the youngest «Dan» — the first, the eldest — ten:


Hachi-kyu — 8 kyu
Shichi-kyu — 7 kyu
Roku-kyu — 6 kyu
Go-kyu — 5 kyu
Yon-kyu — 4 kyu
San-kyu — 3 kyu
Ni-kyu — 2 kyu
Ik-kyu — 1 kyu
Sho-Dan — Dan 1
Ni-Dan — Dan 2
San-Dan — Dan 3
Yon-dan — 4th Dan
Go-dan — 5 Dan
Roku-Dan — Dan 6
Shichi — Dan — 7 Dan
Hachi-Dan — Dan 8
Ku Dan — Dan 9
Ju-dan — 10 Dan



Aikido training takes place in the dojo:

Dojo — Place of employment martial arts (literally: «place of comprehension of the way»)
Tatami — 1) Traditionally — mat of rice straw about 1m x 2m (now usually made of foam polyurethane foam);
Tatami — 2) Contemporary — All the space, carpeted mats, and is intended for training
Kamidza — Home wall
Shimodza — Location, opposite kamidza
Shihanday — Location Sheehan



What is dressed?

On the mat, for reasons of hygiene, safety and comfort, all wear special clothes:

Keikogi (Doga) — Track suit (widely known as «Kimono» is erroneous and refers to other varieties of clothing)
Obi — Belt
Hakama — Wide trousers (usually for working from the 1st Dan and above)
Meaning seven hakama folds.

Mitsugi Sensei Saotome in his book «Principles of Aikido» quoted Morihei Ueshiba that seven hakama folds symbolize the seven virtues of Budo (the way of the warrior)
Jin: Kindness, generosity — This means careful attention to the others, excluding the origin, age, sex, opinion or adverse circumstances. Do not be a nuisance or unnecessary suffering.
Gi: honor, justicehonor -  Understanding comes through respect for self and others. It means to be true to its word, its obligations and its ideals.
Rei: Politeness, courtesy — Politeness — not so much an expression of sincere interest in others, as social behavior, expressed in deeds and respect for others.
Chi: Wisdom, intelligenceWisdom — synonymous with the ability to distinguish between positive and negative, to have an objective picture of the significance of the situation and events.
Shin: Sincerity. Sincerity — required quality for those involved in the martial arts. Without it, the practice of martial arts becomes a deception or self-deception. Surrender in the martial arts should be complete, continuous.
Chu: Fidelity. Virtue, which has almost disappeared in the modern world, but is the foundation for the martial arts. Budoka undertakes to execute and respects the internal rules established in his school.
Koh: Piety, piety, respect for elders
Piety in our case — it is wholly and sincere respect for the basics of martial arts: technical, spiritual, historical and philosophical.


What are we talking about?

Since Aikido engaged exclusively in people are polite and well-bred, that the classroom atmosphere of friendliness and co-operation:

Ohayo godzaimas — Good morning
Konnichi va — Hello
Komban va — Good evening
Sayonara — Goodbye
Doso — Please, I beg you
Arigato Godzaymashta  — Thank you for doing me
Domo arigato godzaymashta — Thank you very much (very polite form)
O-negai shmas — Polite form of an invitation to any joint activities (occupations)
Otskare samadesita — Thanks for joint work, work
O-tagai-ni-rei — Cross bow


What are we doing?

Teams used in the classroom:

Kyritsu — Stand up!
Matte — Wait!
Mocuso — The command to create the inner attitude at the beginning and at the end of training
Rei — Bow!
Seiza — Sit up straight!
Hajime — Begin!
Yame — Stop!


How do we fall?


Ukemi waza — Insurance Technique
Mae ukemi — Insurance somersault forward over his arm
Ushiro ukemi — Insurance somersault ago
Yoko ukemi — Insurance upside down over his arm to the side


Where and how?

Directions sides and levels:

Hidari — Left
Migi — Right
Mae — Front
Ushiro — Rear
Jodan — upper level (above the shoulders)
Chudan — Intermediate (from the shoulders to the waist)
Gedan — lower level (below the belt)
Irimi — Entering entrance
Tenkan — Rotation
Omote — Face, Front
Ura — Reverse, rear
Soto — Outside
Uchi — Inside


How do we stand?

Body and strut provisions:

Kamae — ready position: legs slightly bent, hands in front of him
Hanmi — body location in a half-turn (45 °) in the direction of the attack
Migi Hanmi — Right side Front
Hidari Hanmi — left foot
Ayhanmi — The opponents are in relation to each other at the front of the same name
Gyakuhanmi — The opponents are in relation to each other in heteronymic (SLR) rack
Maai — distance in space and time. Simplistically we can say — the distance between opponents


How do we move?

Movements in space:

Tai Sabaki — how to change the position of the body
Tsugi ashi — Side Step
Ayumi ashi — Step with change of foot
Tenkan — 180 ° rotation on the spot
Tenkan — Withdrawal from the attack line and turn 180 ° with a step back
Irimi tenkan — It consists of two movements — irimi (entry to step forward) and tenkan
Shikko — Moving on her knees


How to attack us?

Dori Kata — Capture Technology
Katate dori — Capture the opponent’s wrist with one hand
Ayhanmi Katate dori — Grab the hand of the same name
Gyaku hanmi Katate dori — Capture of oppositely arm (ref capture)
Ryote dori — Grab with both hands in front of the two hands
Kata dori — Capture the shoulder
Ryokata dori — Capturing two front shoulder
Kakae dori — Capture of the body (girth with both hands in front)
Morote dori — Capture of one hand with two hands
Hiji dori — Capture elbow
Muna dori — Capture of lapel jacket
Eri dori — Capture the collar
Soda dori — Grab the arm (at the elbow)
Kubi shime — Capture the throat (suffocation)
Ushiro dori — Rear Grips


 How to beat us?


Atemi waza — Strikes Technique
Atemi — Diversionary attacks usually applied before or during the performance of equipment
Tsuki — Direct bonder, thrusting a hand
Tsuki Jodan — Punch to the upper level (in the head)
Tsuki Chudan — The impact on the average level of hand (in the trunk)
Uchi — chop hand
Shomen uchi — Strike hand from top to bottom
Yokomen uchi — Strike hand side
Suhei uchi — Punch through the chest
Gery — Kicks
Mae geri — Kicks forward
Yoko geri — Kick to the side
Ushiro geri — Kicking back
Mawashi geri — Kicking Side


How do we protect ourselves?

Aikido Techniques:

Nage waza — Throwing techniques
Juju-garami nage — Throw plexus hands
Irimi nage — Throw formed on the counter movement
Kaiten nage — Throw a circular rotation
Kokyu nage — Throw coordinated with the partner’s movements, «breathing throw»
Kote gaeshi nage — Throw twisting brush
Koshi nage — Throw along the waist
Tenchi nage — Throw «heaven-earth»
Udekime nage — Throw impact on elbow
Shiho nage — Throw on a «four directions»


What’s happening?

Variety of techniques:

Waza — technique, the way section
Kihon no waza — Basic technique
Henka waza — Additional technique
Tachi waza — Techniques, held in a standing position (both standing opponent)
Suvari waza — Receptions held on his knees (both enemy on their knees)
Hanmi handachi waza — Receptions held sitting standing against attacks
Ju waza — Arbitrary execution of various techniques from a specially agreed attack
Buki waza — One partner is armed
Randori — Voluntary work against one or more opponents, when the methods of attack and defense are not specified in advance
Kata — Perform acceptance strictly on the classical scheme
Tori (Nage) — Conductive reception thrower
Uke — Subjected to receive Dropped


How do we control the situation?

Ways to maintain and control the enemy:

Osae waza — Receptions retention
Ikkyo (ude osae) — The first pressing of control or control arms
Nikyo (kote mawashi) — Second control or control the rotation of the forearm
Sankyo (kote hineri) — Third monitoring or control of twisting the forearm
Yonkyo (tekubi) — Fourth monitoring or control by pressure wrist
Gokyo (ude nobashi) — Fifth control or control stretching hands
Hidzhikime osae — Hold elbow


What can we help?

Work with the weapon:

Buki waza — With arms Technique
Bokken — Wooden sword
Tanto — Dagger, knife
Jo — Stick, up to the axilla
Kumitachi — Technique pair work on swords
Kumijo — Technology paired with jo
Tachi dori waza — Technique work against an opponent armed with a sword
Tanto dori waza — Technique work against an opponent armed with a knife
Jo dori waza — Technique work against an opponent armed with jo
Jon aga waza — Protection and a jo against attacks (grabs for jo) unarmed attacker


And the Japanese?

In developing the technology or the individual elements, the warm-up and implementation of preparatory exercises, account is in Japanese:

1 — Ichi
2 — Ni
3 — San
4 – Shi (yon)
5 – Go
6 — Rocu
7 – Shichi (nana)
8 – Hachi
9 – Ku (Kyu)
10 — Ju
20 – Ninju
30 – Sanju
40 – Jonju
50 — Goju
60 – Rocuju
70 – Shichiju
80 – Hachiju
90 – Kuju
100- Hyaku

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